Applications of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi to Improve Growth of Oil Palm Seedlings and Disease Resistance Against Ganoderma sp.


Maria Viva Rini
Syaifudin Nur Hasan
Kuswanta Futas Hidayat
Titiek Nur Aeny


Currently, basal stem rot disease incident in oil palm caused by the Ganoderma sp. increasing rapidly. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are one of the types of mycorrhizae that are useful for plants as they can increase plant growth and resistance to disease. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether the application of AMF to oil palm seedlings was able to increase the growth and resistance of oil palm seedlings against Ganoderma sp. The study used a factorial treatment design (4x2) with 5 replications arranged according to a completely randomized block design. The first factor was the type of AMF, namely without AMF (m0), Glomus sp. (m1), Entrophospora sp. (m2), and a mixture of Glomus sp. with Entrophospora sp. (m3). The second factor was soil from the oil palm rhizosphere that was attacked by Ganoderma sp., namely sterilized soil (g0) and unsterilized soil (g1). The data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance and the mean separation was tested using the Least Significant Difference test at the 5% level. The results showed that all AMF treatments (m1, m2, and m3) increased the growth of oil palm seedlings compared to controls. Ganoderma sp. present in the planting medium has not inhibited the growth of oil palm seedlings (both control and those applied with AMF) as there is no Ganoderma sp. infection in the roots of oil palm seedlings observed at the end of the study (5 months after planting)


Author Biographies

Maria Viva Rini, Lampung University

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

Syaifudin Nur Hasan, Lampung University

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

Kuswanta Futas Hidayat, Lampung University

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

Titiek Nur Aeny, Lampung University

Department of Plant Protection

How to Cite
Rini, M. V., Hasan, S. N. ., Hidayat, K. F., & Aeny, T. N. (2022). Applications of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi to Improve Growth of Oil Palm Seedlings and Disease Resistance Against Ganoderma sp. Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, 6(1), 31-40.


  1. Badan Pusat Statistik. (2020). Retrieved November 12, 2021, from
  2. Brundrett, M., Bougher, N., Dell, B., Grove, T., Disclaimer, N. M., Neale, M. B., Grove, B. T., Malajczuk, N., Csiro, :, & Products, F. (1996). Working Ylith Mycorrhizas in Forestry and Agriculture The Authors. June 1982, 344.
  3. Deguchi, S., Yagi, T., & Ohtomo, R. (2021). Low indigenous AM fungal activity would be a necessary but not sufficient condition for effective utilization of exogenous AM fungal inoculum to forage corn. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 67(1), 50–56.
  4. Hendarjanti, H. (2020). Online Training Class: Konsorsium agen biokontrol melawan Ganoderma. Best Planter Indonesia.
  5. Krisnarini, K., Rini, M., & Timotiwu, P. (2018). the Growth of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Seedlings With the Application of Different Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi and Various Phosphorous Dosages. Journal of Tropical Soils, 23(3), 117–124.
  6. Lam, W. Y., Kulak, M., Sim, S., King, H., Huijbregts, M. A. J., & Chaplin-Kramer, R. (2019). Greenhouse gas footprints of palm oil production in Indonesia over space and time. Science of the Total Environment, 688, 827–837.
  7. Olowe, O. M., Olawuyi, O. J., Sobowale, A. A., & Odebode, A. C. (2018). Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as biocontrol agents against Fusarium verticillioides causing ear rot of Zea mays L. (Maize). Current Plant Biology, 15(October), 30–37.
  8. Owen, D., Williams, A. P., Griffith, G. W., & Withers, P. J. A. (2015). Use of commercial bio-inoculants to increase agricultural production through improved phosphrous acquisition. Applied Soil Ecology, 86, 41–54.
  9. Paterson, R. R. M. (2019). Ganoderma boninense disease deduced from simulation modelling with large data sets of future Malaysian oil palm climate. Phytoparasitica, March.
  10. Qin, M., Zhang, Q., Pan, J., Jiang, S., Liu, Y., Bahadur, A., Peng, Z., Yang, Y., & Feng, H. (2020). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on soil enzyme activity is coupled with increased plant biomass. European Journal of Soil Science, 71(1), 84–92.
  11. Rees, R. W., Flood, J., Hasan, Y., & Cooper, R. M. (2007). Effects of inoculum potential, shading and soil temperature on root infection of oil palm seedlings by the basal stem rot pathogen Ganoderma boninense. Plant Pathology, 56(5), 862-870.
  12. Rees, R. W., Flood, J., Hasan, Y., Wills, M. A., & Cooper, R. M. (2012). Ganoderma boninense basidiospores in oil palm plantations: Evaluation of their possible role in stem rots of Elaeis guineensis. Plant Pathology, 61(3), 567–578.
  13. Rias, R. R., Rini, M. V., & Yelli, F. (2017). Seleksi Lima Isolat Fungi Mikoriza Arbuskular untuk Pembibitan Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pada dua Dosis Pupuk NPK. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Terapan, 15(1), 24–32.
  14. Rini, M. V., Susilowati, E., Riniarti, M., & Lukman, I. (2020). Application of Glomus sp. and a mix of Glomus sp. with Gigaspora sp. in improving the Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.) seedling growth in Ultisol soil. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 449(1).
  15. Sato, T., Ezawa, T., Cheng, W., & Tawaraya, K. (2015). Release of acid phosphatase from extraradical hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus clarus. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 61(2), 269–274.
  16. Siddiqui, Y., Surendran, A., Paterson, R. R. M., Ali, A., & Ahmad, K. (2021). Current strategies and perspectives in detection and control of basal stem rot of oil palm. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28(5), 2840–2849.
  17. Souza, T. (2015). Handbook of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In Handbook of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.
  18. Sujarit, K., Pathom-aree, W., Mori, M., Dobashi, K., Shiomi, K., & Lumyong, S. (2020). Streptomyces palmae CMU-AB204T, an antifungal producing-actinomycete, as a potential biocontrol agent to protect palm oil producing trees from basal stem rot disease fungus, Ganoderma boninense. Biological Control, 148(December 2019).
  19. Sundram, S. (2010). Growth effects by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on oil palm (elaeis guineensis jacq.) seedlings. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 22(AUGUST), 796–802.
  20. Susanto A and Sudharto 2003 Status of Ganoderma disease on oil palm In Indonesia. In: 3rd Int. Work. on Ganoderma Diseases of Perennial Crops (Medan: IOPRI).
  21. Swandi, F., Sulyanti, E., Darnetty, D., & Refflin, R. (2020). The Potential of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) as Biocontrol Agent Againts Stem Rot Diseases Caused Sclerotium rolfsii of peanut (Arabic hypogea L.). JERAMI Indonesian Journal of Crop Science, 2(2), 65-71.
  22. Szczałba, M., Kopta, T., Gąstoł, M., & Sękara, A. (2019). Comprehensive insight into arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Trichoderma spp. and plant multilevel interactions with emphasis on biostimulation of horticultural crops. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 127(3), 630–647.
  23. Zhang, H., Liu, T., Wang, Y., & Tang, M. (2019). Exogenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase soil organic carbon and change microbial community in poplar rhizosphere. Plant, Soil and Environment, 65(3), 152–158.