The Utilization of Dioscorea Tuber in Self-Rising Starch: a Review


Mimi Harni
Tuty Anggraini
Rini Rini
Irfan Suliansyah


Self-rising starch is a development product of self-rising flour. This product  minimizes the process, especially in the salt and leavening agent weighing stage, so that it reduces the time in the serving process.  Self-rising flour is generally made of wheat flour.  Currently, due to some medical considerations, many people cannot consume this product. Based on some research results, gluten compound in wheat flour or wheat triggers for the development of type-1 diabetes. This fact has caused Indonesia to be ranked fifth in the world for the diabetic diseases. Thus, one of the ways to overcome this problem is by utilizing the raw materials originating from Indonesia too, namely tubers. Indonesia has a variety of tubers. Some of these tubers, however, have not been explored. These tubers have not only the function as the good sources of carbohydrates but also the bioactive compounds and more functional values, such as water soluble polysaccharides (WSP), diosgenin, inulin and glycemic index. They increase the functional properties of the starch that are produced. The tubers that currently have not been cultivated are the genus Dioscorea. The various tubers that are included in dioscorea family are uwi, gembili, gadung, tomberoso and jebubuk. All of these tubers are good sources of carbohydrates. Uwi, gembili and gadung are tubers that have been cultivated by the people for many years. On the hand, tomberoso and jebubuk tubers grow wildly in the forest that only become the foods for the wild animals in it. The starch derived from the disccorea tubers can be used as self-rising starch because it has the property as food developer. It contains high carbohydrates and bio-active compound, therefore, it is healthier to consume.


Author Biographies

Mimi Harni, University Andalas

Doctoral Program in Agriculture Sciences

Tuty Anggraini, University Andalas

Agricultural Product Technology Study Program

Rini Rini, University Andalas

Agrcultural Product Technology Study Program

Irfan Suliansyah, University Andalas

Postgraduate Agricultural Science Study Program

How to Cite
Harni, M., Anggraini, T. ., Rini, R., & Suliansyah, I. . (2022). The Utilization of Dioscorea Tuber in Self-Rising Starch: a Review. Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, 6(2), 192-204.


  1. Aguirre, A.R., Cárdenas, J. D.D.F., Wong, B.R., Villa, G.A., Sandoval, S. J.J., Flores, H. E. M., & Robles, J.F.P. (2021). Effect of Nixtamalization with Ca(OH)2, CaCl2, and CaCO3 on The Protein Secondary Structure, Rheological, and Textural Properties of Soft Wheat Flour Doughs. Journal of Cereal Science.
  2. Arepally, D., Reddy, R.S., Gosmawi, T.K., & Datta, A.K. (2020). Biscuit : A Review. LWT . Vol 131.
  3. Behera, L., Mohanta, M., & Thirugnanam, A. (2022). Intensification of Yam-Starch Based Biodegradable Bioplastic Film with Bentonite for Food Packaging Application. Journal Environmental Technology & Innovation. Vol 25.
  4. Brose E. & Becker G. (2001). Chemical Leavening Agents. Chemische Fabrik Budenheim Rudolf A. Oetker. Budenheim. Germany.
  5. Cenkowski, S., Dexter, J.E. & Scanlon, M.G. (2000). Mechanical Compaction of Flour: The Effect of Storage Temperature on Dough Rheological Properties. Canadian Agriculture. Enggineering., 42 (1) : 33-41.
  6. Chikpah, S.K., Korese, J.K., Hensel, O., Sturm, B., & Pawelzik, E. (2021). Rheo logical Properties of Dough and Bread Quality Characteristics as Influenced by The Proportion of Wheat Flour Substitution with Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Flour and Baking Conditions. LWT - Food Science and Technology 147.
  7. Chiranthika, N. N. G., Chandrasekara, A., & Gunathilake, K. D. P. P. (2022) Physicochemical Characterization of Flours and Starches Derived from Selected Underutilized Roots and Tuber Crops Grown In Sri Lanka. Journal Food Hydrocolloids. Volume 124, Part A.
  8. Chowdhury, R. 2018. Flour - The Integral Part of Balance Diet-Exploratory Study on Cereals Products. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research. 8 (3) : 208-214.
  10. French, B.R. 2006. Food plants of Papua New Guinea. A compendium. Revised edition. Australia Pasific Science Foudation. 38 West St., Burnie. Tasmania 7320. Australia.
  11. Gunawan, S., Aparamarta, H. W., Anindita, B. P., and Antari, A. T. (2019). “Effect of Fermentation Time on The Quality of Modified Gadung Flour from Gadung Tuber (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.),” in: Broad Exposure to Science and Technology 2019, Bali, Indonesia. 10.1088/1757-899X/673/1/012002
  12. Guo, X., X., Hu, W., Liu, Y., Sun, S.Q., Gu, D.C., He, H., Xu, C.H., & Wang, X., C. 2016. Rapid Determination and Chemical Change Tracking of Benzoyl Peroxide in Wheat Flour by Multi-Step Ir Macro-Fingerprinting. Spectrochimica Acta Part A : Molecular and Biomelecular Sprectroscopy. 10.1016/j.saa.2015.10.017
  13. Ha, M.A., Jarvis, M.C., & Man, J.I. (2000). A Definition for Dietary Fiber. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 54 (12) : 861-864.
  14. Hamid, Z. A. A., Idris, M. H. M., Arzami, N. A. A. B., and Ramle, S. F. M. (2019). Investigation on the chemical composition of Discorea hispida dennst (Ubi Gadong),” AIP Conf. Proc. 2068. 10.1063/1.5089340
  15. Hatmi, R.U., & Djaafaar, T.F. (2014). Keberagaman Umbi-umbian sebagai Bahan Pangan Fungsional. Prosiding Seminar Hasil Penelitian Tanaman Aneka Kacang dan Umbi. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian. Yogyakarta. pp 950-960.
  16. Hou, W.C., Liu, J.S., Chen, H.J., Chen, T.E., Chang, C.F. & Lin, Y.H. (1999) . Dioscorin, The Major Tuber Storage Protein of Yam (Nioscoreabatntas decne) with Carbonic an- Hydrase and Trypsin Inhibitor Activities. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemical. 47(5): 2168- 2172.
  17. Hsu C.C., Huang, Y.C., Yin, M.C., & Lin, S.J. (2006). Effect of Yam (Dioscorea alata compared to Dioscorea japonica) on Gastrointestinal Function and Antioxidant Activity in Mice. Journal of Food Science. 71(7): 513–516.
  18. International Diabetes Federation. (16 November 2021). Call for Data for The IDF.
  19. Irmayadani, Yopi, Febriani, & Iqhbalsyah, T. (2019). “Preliminary Study of Bioethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BTCC12 Utilizing Hydrolysis Products of Dioscorea hispida Tubers. IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science. 364 (1) : 012004. 10.1088/1755-1315/364/1/012004
  20. Kamaruddin, Z. H., Sapuan, S. M., Yusoff, M. Z. M., & Jumaidin, R. 2020. Rapid Detection and Identification of Dioscorine Compounds in Dioscorea hispida Tuber Plants by LC-ESI-MS. BioResources. 15(3) : 5999–6011.
  21. Khasanah, Y., Nurhayati, R., Miftakhussholihah, Btari, S., & Ratnaningrum, E. (2019). Isolation Oligosaccharides from Gembili (Dioscorea esculenta) as Prebiotics. IOP Conference Series : Materials Science and Engineering. 633 (012006). 899X/633/1/012006
  22. Kresnadipayana, D., and Waty, H. (2019) “The Concentration of NaCl Soaking to Decreasing Cyanide Levels in Gadung (Dioscorea hispida Dennst),” Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium. 8(1), 36-40 DOI: 10.29238/teknolabjournal.v8i1.156
  23. Lajoie, M. S., & Thomas, M. C. (1994). Sodium Bicorbonate Particle Size and Neutralization in Sponge – Dough System. Cereal Foods World. 39 (9). pp 684-87.
  24. Lajoie, M. S., & Thomas, M.C. (1991). Versatility of Bicarbonate Leavening Bases. Cereal Foods World. 36 (5). pp 420-423.
  25. Lazim, A.M., Sharlina, M.S.E., Azfaraliff, A., Yaacob, W.A., Lim, S.J., Fazry, S., Mohammad,M., & Abdullah, N.H. (2021). Structure, Physicochemical and Toxicity Properties of Underused Malaysian Native Tuber’s Starch (Dioscorea Pentaphylla). Journal of King Saud University-Science. 33 (6).
  26. Lebot, V., Malapa, R., & Abraham, K. (2016). The Pacific Yam (Dioscorea nummularia Lam.), an Under-Exploited Tuber Crop from Melanesia. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 64 : 217-235.
  27. Lebot, V., Malapa, R., Molisale, T & Marchand, J.L. (2006). Physico-Chemical Characterisation of Yam (Dioscorea alata L.) Tubers from Vanuatu. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 53 (6) : 1199-1208.
  28. Lebwohl, M. D. B., Sanders, M. D. D. S., & Green, M. D. P. H. R. (2018). Coeliac Disease. The Lancet. (391) 10115 : 70-81.
  29. Lubag, A. J. M., Laurena, A.C., & Mendoza, E.M.T. (2008). Antioxidants of Purple and White Greater Yam (Dioscorea alata L.) Varieties from the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Science. 137 (1): 61–67.
  30. Ma, F., & Baik, B.K. (2018). Soft Wheat Quality Characteristics Required for Making Baking Powder Biscuits. Journal of Cereal Scince. 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.10.016
  31. Maneenoon, K., Sirirugsa, P & Sridith, K. (2008). Ethnobotany of Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae), a Major Food Plant of The Sakai Tribe at Banthad Range, Peninsular Thailand. Journal of Plants, People and Applied Research. 6 : 385-394.
  32. Marietta, E. V., Gomez, A. M., Yeoman, C., Tilahun, A.Y., & Clark, C. R., et al. (2013). Low Incidence of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice Raised on Gluten-Free Diets Is Associated with Changes in the Intestinal Microbiome. PloS ONE, 8 (11). pp 1-9.
  33. Mignouna, H. D., Abang, M. M., Asiedu, R. & Geeta, R. (2009). True Yams (Dioscorea ): A Biological and Evolutionary Link Between Eudicots and Grasses. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. . 11 : 1–7.
  34. Miranda-Garcia, O. (2013). The Storage of Grain and Aging of Flour, and Their Effects on Flour Functionality. Undergraduate Thesis, Oregon State University. file:///C:/Users/ASUS/Downloads/miranda_garciaThesis_FINAL.pdf
  35. Moalic S., Liagre, B., Corbiere, C., Bianchi, A., Dauca, M., Bordji, K., & Beneytout, J.L. (2001). A Plant Steroid, Diosgenin Induces Apoptosis, Cell Cycle Arrest and Cox Activity in Osteosarcoma Cells. FEBS Lett, 506 (3) : 225-230.
  36. Nadia, L, Wirakartakusumah, M.A., Andarwulan, N., & Purnomo, E. H. (2013). Karakterisasi Sifat Fisikokimia dan Fungsional Fraksi Pati Uwi Ungu
  37. (Dioscorea alata). Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan. 36 (2) : 91-102.
  38. Nasar, E.S., Ismail, M.G., Damarawi, A.M.E., & Din, A.A. E (2013). Effect of Inulin on Metabolic Changes Produced by Fructose Rich Diet. Life Science Journal. 10 (2) : 1807 -1814.
  39. Nasriyah, M., Athiqah, M. Y. N., Amin, H. S., Norhayati, N., Azwar, A. W. M & Khairil, M. (2011). Ethnobotany and Distribution of Wild Edible Tubers in Pulau Redang and Nearby Islands of Terengganu, Malaysia. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology . 60 : 1832-183.
  40. Nugraheni, M., Lastariwati, B., & Purwanti, S. (2017). Proximate and Chemical Analysis of Gluten-free Enriched, Resistant Starch Type 3 from Maranta arundinacea Flour and it’s Potential as a Functional Food. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 16 (5) : 332-330. 10.3923/pjn.2017.322.330
  41. Odeku, O. A. 2013. Potentials of tropical starches as pharmaceutical excipients: A review. Starch/Sta ̈ rke 2013, 65, 89–106. DOI 10.1002/star.201200076
  42. Okwu, D.E. & Ndu, C.U. (2006). Evaluation of The Phytonutrients, Mineral and Vitamin Contents of Some Varieties of Yam (Dioscorea sp.). International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Science. 2 (2) : 199-203.
  43. Padhan, B., Biswas, M., & Panda, D. (2020). Nutritional, Anti-Nutritional and Physico-Functional Properties of Wild Edible Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Tubers from Koraput, India. Food Bioscience. Vol 34.
  44. Pambayun, R. (2008). Kiat Sukses Teknologi Pengolahan
  45. Umbi Gadung. Penerbit Ardana Media, Yogyakarta.
  46. Peroni, F.H.G., Rocha, T.S., & Franco, C.M.L. (2006). Some Structural and Physicochemical Characteristics of Tuber and Root Starches. Food Science Technology International. 12 (6) : 505–513.
  47. Prabowo, A.Y., Estiasih, T., & Purwatiningrum, I. (2014). Umbi Gembili (Dioscorea esculenta L.) sebagai Bahan Pangan Mengandung Senyawa Bioaktif : Kajian Pustaka. Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri. 2 (3) : 129-135.
  48. Prakash, G., Hosetti, B.B., & Dhananjaya, B.L. (2014). Antimutagenic Effect of Dioscorea pentaphylla on Genotoxic Effect Induced by Methyl Methanesulfonate in The Drosophila Wing Spot Test. Toxicol International. 21(3): 258-263.
  49. Purnomo, Daryono, B.S., Rugayah, & Sumardi, I. (2012). Studi Etnobotani Dioscorea Spp. (Dioscoreaceae) dan Kearifan Budaya Lokal Masyarakat di Sekitar Hutan Wonosadi Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta. Jurnal Natur Indonesia 14 (3): 191-198.
  50. Raju, J., & Rao, C. V. (2012). Diosgenin, a Steroid Saponin Constituent of
  51. Yams and Fenugreek: Emerging Evidence for Applications in Medicine. Toxicology Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Department of Medicine, Hematology-Oncology Section, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center USA.
  52. /10.5772/26700
  53. Richana, N., & Sunarti, T. C. (2004). Karakterisasi Sifat Fisikokimia Tepung Umbi dan Tepung Pati dari Umbi Ganyong, Suweg, Ubi Kelapa dan Gembili. Jurnal Pascapanen. 1 (1) : 29-37.
  54. Riley, C.K., Wheatley, A.O., & Asemota, H.N. (2006). Isolation and Characterization of Starches from Eight Dioscorea alata Cultivars Grown in Jamaica. African Journal of Biotechnology. 5 (17) : 1528-1536.
  55. Roberfroid, M.B. (2005). Introducing Inulin-Type Fructans. British Journal of Nutrition. 93: S(1) : S13-S25.
  56. Santoso, B., Pratama, F., Hamzah, B., & Pambayun, R. (2015). Karakteristik Fisik dan Kimia Pati Ganyong dan Gadung Termodifikasi Metode Ikatan Silang. Jurnal Agritech. 35(3) : 273-279.
  57. Senanayake, I., Dissanayake, D.M. D. O. K., & Puswewala, U. G. A. (2012). Analysis of The Abundance of Abandoned Tanks in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka using GIS Techniques. Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space. 15 (2) : 143-150.
  58. Shajeela, P. S., Mohan, V. R., Jesudas, L. L., Soris, P. T. (2011). Nutritional and Antinutritional Evaluation of Wild Yam (Dioscorea spp.). Trop. Subtrop. Agroecosyst. 14, 723–730.
  59. Sharlina, M. S., Yaacob, W. A., Lazim, A. M., Fazry, S., Lim, S. J., Abdullah, S., Noordin, A., & Kumaran, M. (2017). Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers. Food Chemistry. 220 : 225–232.
  60. Slidorf, S.M, Fredheim, S., Svensson, J., & Buschard, K. (2012). Remission Without Insulin Therapy on Gluten-Free Diet in a 6-Year Old Boy with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. BMJ Case reports. Bcr 0220125878.
  61. Singh, T., Singh, A., Singh, B., & Sharma, S. (2017). Effect of Storage Conditions on Product Characteristics and Microbiological Quality of Self Rising Flour. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 6 (5) : 561-574.
  62. Tejinder, S., Hanuman, B., Savita, S & Baljit, S. (2015). Formulation and Standardization of Self Rising Flour as a Convenience Food Article for Preparation of High Quality Cookies. Research Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences. 3(2) : 5-9.
  63. Wang, H., Yang, Q., Gao, L., Gong, X., Qu, Y., & Feng, B. (2020). Functional and Physicochemical Properties of Flours and Starches from
  64. Different Tuber Crops. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. Vol 148 : 324-332.
  65. Wang, L.F. & Flores, R.A. (1999). The Effect of Storage on Flour Quality and Baking Performance. Food Reviews International., 15 (2) : 215–234.
  66. Winarti, S., Harmayani, E. & Nurismanto, R. (2011). Karakteristik dan Profil Inulin Beberapa Jenis Uwi (Dioscorea app.). Jurnal Agritech. 31 (4) : 378-383.
  67. Yeh, A. -I., Chan, T. -Y., & Chuang, G. C. -C. (2009). Effect of Water Content and Mucilage on Physicochemical Characteristic of Yam (Dioscorea alata ) Starch. Journal of Food Engineering. 95 (1) : 106-114.