Balinese Traditional Agroforestry as Base of Watershed Conservation


I Gusti Diah Ayu Yuniti
Jhon Hardy Purba
Nanang Sasmita
Liris Lis Komara
Tomycho Olviana
I Made Kartika


Forests, traditional gardens and green spaces play an important role in regulating the water flow of an area. Along with the high demand for land in Bali for agriculture and tourism, many forest areas have been converted into hotels and settlements. Forest conversion has caused many problems such as erosion, soil fertility decreased, flora fauna extinction, floods, drought, global warming and the disturbing watershed, especially rivers for springs. The purpose of this study is the development of watershed conservation in Bali based on traditional agroforestry. The method that used is vegetation analysis. Calculation of the erosion amount using the USLE formula. Sampling was done by ten plots. The results showed that traditional agroforestry vegetation consisted of vertical and horizontal structures. The characteristic of traditional agroforestry is that dominant plants are distributed irregularly, thus creating a miniature structure like a forest. The vertical structure consists of trees, horizontal structure filled with species of garden plants and agriculture. Trees have roots spread intensively in the soil and reduce nutrient leaching. Land cover by vegetation protects the soil and erosion. The agroforestry has a role as an act of soil and water conservation. Traditional agroforestry land cover has a relatively low C coefficient (0.05-0.25) compared to other lands. The level of erosion hazard is low and moderate. Average erosion value of 55.01 t.ha-1.yr-1. This indicates that traditional agroforestry makes the soil have a higher ability to absorb water, thereby reducing surface runoff. Likewise, organic material that improves the water content capacity. In addition, water quality can be improved through the humus filter function. During a long dry season, there is a drought due to low rainfall, but rivers and springs were able to supply water for the peoples daily needs. This condition occurs because of the tree retentions in traditional gardens. Conservation actions need to be taken, namely maintaining trees vegetation, increasing reforestation, bench terraces use, mounds and mulch use. This condition also places traditional agroforestry as a sustainable land management system.


Author Biographies

I Gusti Diah Ayu Yuniti, Mahasaraswati University

Faculty of Agriculture

Jhon Hardy Purba, Panji Sakti University

Faculty of Agriculture

Nanang Sasmita, Udayana University

Faculty of Agriculture

Tomycho Olviana, Nusa Cendana University

Faculty of Agriculture

I Made Kartika, Ngurah Rai University

Faculty Economics and Business

How to Cite
Yuniti, I. G. D. A. ., Purba, J. H., Sasmita, N. ., Komara, L. L. ., Olviana, T. ., & Kartika, I. M. . (2022). Balinese Traditional Agroforestry as Base of Watershed Conservation. Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, 6(1), 49-60.


  1. Anputhas, M., Janmaat, J., Nichol, C., & Wei, A. (2019). If They Come, Where will We Build It? Land-Use Implications of Two Forest Conservation Policies in the Deep Creek Watershed. Forests, 10(7), 581.
  2. Arévalo-Gardini, E., Canto, M., Alegre, J., Loli, O., Julca, A., & Baligar, V. (2015). Changes in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Long Term Improved Natural and Traditional Agroforestry Management Systems of Cacao Genotypes in Peruvian Amazon. PLOS ONE, 10(7), e0132147.
  3. Arsyad, S. (2012). Konservasi Tanah dan Air. IPB Press.
  5. Asdak, C. (2018). Hidrologi dan Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai. Gadjah Mada University Press.
  6. Cuvelier, C., & Greenfield, C. (2016). The integrated watershed management planning experience in Manitoba: the local conservation district perspective. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 33(3), 1–15.
  7. Dewi, N. P. A. P. (2018). Eksistensi Telajakan Di Koridor Permukiman Desa Wisata. Undagi : Jurnal Ilmiah Jurusan Arsitektur Universitas Warmadewa, 6(1), 13–22.
  8. Gintings, A. N. (1982). Aliran Permukaan dan Erosi Tanah yang Tertutup Tanaman Kopi dan Hutan Alam di Sumberjaya Lampung Utara. Laporan No. 399. Balai Penelitian Hutan.
  9. Herri, Y. H., Iskandar, J., Hadyana, Priyono, Soemarwoto, O., Christanty, L., & Ninez, V. K. (1985). The talun-kebun: a man-made forest fitted to family needsHousehold food production: comparative perspectives (No. 634 H842). International Potato Center.
  10. Kalcic, M. M., Frankenberger, J., & Chaubey, I. (2015). Spatial Optimization of Six Conservation Practices Using Swat in Tile-Drained Agricultural Watersheds. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 51(4), 956–972.
  11. Kaler, I. G. K. (1983). Butir-butir tercecer tentang adat Bali (Vol. 2). Bali Agung.
  12. Karyati, K., Ipor, I. B., Jusoh, I., & Wasli, M. E. (2017). The diameter increment of selected tree species in a secondary tropical forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 18(1).
  13. Leimona, B., Lusiana, B., van Noordwijk, M., Mulyoutami, E., Ekadinata, A., & Amaruzaman, S. (2015). Boundary work: Knowledge co-production for negotiating payment for watershed services in Indonesia. Ecosystem Services, 15, 45–62.
  14. Molla, T., & Sisheber, B. (2017). Estimating soil erosion risk and evaluating erosion control measures for soil conservation planning at Koga watershed in the highlands of Ethiopia. Solid Earth, 8(1), 13–25.
  15. Purba, J. H., Manik, I. W. Y., Sasmita, N., & Komara, L. L. (2020). Telajakan and mixed gardens landscape as household based agroforestry supports environmental aesthetics and religious ceremonies in Bali. In IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 449 (2020) - 012041, DOI ….
  16. Purba, J. H., Wahyuni, P. S., & Febryan, I. (2019). Kajian Pemberian Pupuk Kandang Ayam Pedaging dan Pupuk Hayati terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Petsai (Brassica chinensis L.). Agro Bali: Agricultural Journal, 2(2), 77–88.
  17. Purba, J. H., Wahyuni, P. S., Zulkarnaen, Sasmita, N., Yuniti, I. G. A. D., & Pandawani, N. P. (2020). Growth and yield response of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L. var. Tuktuk) from different source materials applied with liquid biofertilizers. Nusantara Bioscience, 12(2), 127–133.
  18. Sasmita, N., Purba, J. H., & Yuniti, I. G. A. D. (2019). Adaptation of Morus alba and Morus cathayana plants in a different climate and environment conditions in Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 20(2), 544–554.
  19. Tika, G. A. (2015). Telajakan, Old Solution New Problem. Kulkul Bali.Co.
  20. Tomer, M. D., Porter, S. A., Boomer, K. M. B., James, D. E., Kostel, J. A., Helmers, M. J., Isenhart, T. M., & McLellan, E. (2015). Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework: 1. Developing Multipractice Watershed Planning Scenarios and Assessing Nutrient Reduction Potential. Journal of Environmental Quality, 44(3), 754–767.
  21. Windia, W. (2005). Transformasi Sistem Irigasi Subak yang Berlandaskan Tri Hita Karana. Ojs.Unud.Ac.Id, 1–15.
  22. Wischmeier, W. H., & Smith, D. D. (1978). Predicting rainfall erosion losses a guide to conservation planning. USDA Agric. Handb (537): 58.